Implemented Projects

Title of the project:Sundarbans Adjacent Fishers Enabling to Resilience Building (SAFER) Project’
Project area:Paikgachha Upazila of Khulna District
Project Duration:March 2015 to August 2019 (48 Months)
Beneficiaries:300 fishermen from 44 seagoing traditional fishing boats and their 191 families which make a total 897 direct beneficiaries.

Short  description of Project:

The southwest coastal region of Bangladesh is a climate hotspot and one of the most vulnerable areas in the world to natural disaster. Around one million people in this region are involved with fishing in the estuaries and most cyclone-prone Bay of Bengal. Recently the rate of cyclones and sea depressions increased which creates risks for fisher communities. When they fishing in the Bay and faces sea depression then they have two options only: (i) Coming back without any fish or (ii) Taking risk of life by sinking. Resulting, fishermen have to sell assets to repay loan which taken before the trip and involuntarily migrated due to poverty and limitation of livelihood options.  In some cases, they are washed out by the wind and tide, rescued by the marine forces of neighboring countries and faced jail as illegal intruders. The fishers contribute to our food security, livelihoods and economic growth. These communities are living an inhuman life year-round. But their contribution to our society is ongoing.

In this context AOSED initiated a new idea to ‘establish a climate resilient fisher community in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh for long term livelihoods safety and improvement with the cooperation of Give2Asia.

Key activities: Developed and installed ‘Vessel Tracking System’ in the traditional seagoing fishing boats. Establishing a small central monitoring hub for regular live communication and exchanging signals. Enhanced knowledge and capacity of fisher communities and linkage building with respective institutions.


  • Developed and installed Vessel Tracking System (VTS) in the seagoing traditionalfishing boatsthat are working effectively.
  • Develop active connection system with VTS operating center and Meteorological department through this process operating center are getting weather information in advance and provide to the fishers groups by translating for easy understanding.
  • Fisher groups are responding the live communication properly and they are spontaneously sharing this information to other fishers groups in the sea.
  • Fisher groups are using safety gear and following the disaster preparedness instruction and radio weather forecast properly.

Fisher groups were able to return 3 times to safe shelter from the deep sea due to sea depression during fishing season in the project period.

Title of the Project:Up-scaling of Manag ed Aquifer Recharge for Providing Community Water Supplies in Saline Area’ (MAR Project)  
Project Area:Rumpal and Mongla Upazila of Bagerhat districts
Duration:January 2014 to June 2017(42 months)
Beneficiaries:7425 poor people who are facing safe drinking water scarcity  

Short description of Project:

The Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh is a part of the Ganges flood plain and has a rich biodiversity. Geographical location has given it a brackish water regime and made it vulnerable to natural disasters. Under natural conditions, aquifers are primarily recharged by the infiltration of rainfall and to a positive extent through surface water bodies and neighboring aquifers. Most of the part this region has lost or less than active the natural conditions of artificial recharge system. Persistent human interventions and adverse impact of climate change kept a negative impact on the water regime, causing reduce upstream fresh water flows, increase salinity, contaminated surface water bodies by toxic chemicals and metals. Besides, population growth and the accompanying land and open water bodies occupied for urbanization in this region, which have created one of the main obstacle for the natural infiltration process.  Around, 43% peoples haven’t access to safe drinking water, besides lack of adequate knowledge and information on optimum use of water resources, effective management system and proper health hygiene practices, which are combined increasing water scarcity and health risk. As a result, human lives and livelihoods have become more vulnerable.

In this context, few areas of this region, artificial recharge techniques could be effective solutions for maintaining or enhancing the water-bearing capacity of saline affected aquifer by the MAR system.

Joint initiative being implemented with the cooperation of Department of Geology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Acacia Water, The Netherlands and UNICEF Bangladesh WASH Section.

Key activities: Social mobilization, capacity development of communities, develop community based MAR management and maintenances, regular water quality monitoring of MAR sites, linkage development with DPHE, LGIs, Upazila administration and relevant government agencies. 

Key Achievements: MAR sites have handed over to community and develop community based management mechanism. Enhanced skills and capable of care taker groups to proper maintenance of MAR site. During the project period a total of 27607.30 thousand litter fresh water have infiltration and inject into aquifers of MAR site and total abstraction have 775.40 thousand litter by community in dry season for drinking water purpose.

Title of the project:  Develop community based mangrove forest conservation and management system in the southwest of Bangladesh
Project Area:Kamarkhola Union of Dacope Upazila (sub-district) under the Khulna district in the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh  
Project Duration:June 2016 to May 2017 2017 (12 months)  
Beneficiaries:fishers, Bwoally (wood cutter) Mowally (non would collocutors)  

Short description of Project: The southwest coastal region of Bangladesh is a part of the Ganges floodplain with a brackish water regime and made it vulnerable to natural disasters. World largest single tract mangrove forest ‘Sundarbans’ situated in this region consisting 6000km that is World Heritage and Ramsar Site of Bangladesh.Unlikely, from the last four decades the SRF becomes more vulnerable rapidly due to unnecessary human intervention and adverse impact of climate change, causing, sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters, reduced fresh water flow from upstream, riverbank erosion and silting up of riverbeds, increased and intensity of salinity and water-logging. Thus ecology and biodiversity become under threaten,

reduced natural regeneration process of mangroves species (flora and fauna) and biological productivity, increasing over-extraction of the mangrove resources without considering its sensitive ecosystem. Besides, lack of adequate knowledge about environmental and economic importance mangrove and coastal wetlands ecosystem as well as values of mangroves. As a result, this in turn causes damage to the livelihoods of the local people and increases poverty circle.

In this context AOSED have taken initiative to increase mangrove restoration and plantation on the Rivers banks through enhance capacity of local communities and develop community based mangrove ecosystem management in the impact zone of the Sundarbans mangrove forest area to reduce loss and damage for human development, with the cooperation of BothENDS, the Netherlands.

Objective of the project: To increase mangrove restoration and plantation on the Rivers banks through enhance capacity of local communities and develop community based mangrove ecosystem management in the impact zone of the Sundarbans mangrove forest area.

Key Activities of the Project:

Conduct household survey, User group formation, Capacity development through issue based training module develop and training, Community meetings and Awareness, Linkage with the LGIs, CSOs, FD, BWDB, and relevant government agencies. Conduct Environmental Field School (EFS) sessions, Develop mangrove nursery through seed collection from the local Rivers and canals during tidal flows and shorting good quality of selected species, Mangrove plantation and restoration in the east bank of the Bhadra River, Participatory monitoring & data collection.


Formed 10 User Group with 100 members (50% female), 80% group member playing active and effective role to implementing project activities. Enhanced knowledge, skills and capacity of community on Mangrove and costal ecosystem; Sustainable uses of mangrove resources;Restoration and regeneration technique of mangrove species; Necessity and how to develop community based ‘Mangrove Nursery’ and regular maintenance. Besides 3000 mangrove Seedling (six species) has been planted in the inter-tidal mud flats on the east bank of the Bhadra River.

Title of the project:Increasing diversified agro production through smart use of water and land in Saline affected climate vulnerable southwest Bangladesh  
Project Area:Loudove Village of Loudove Union, Dacope Upazila (sub District) of Khulna Bangladesh    
Project Duration:May 2012 to December 2013  
Beneficiaries:140 farmers  

Short description of Project:

Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country around 72% populations is involved with agriculture and contributes 18.4 % in national GDP. The Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh is situated at the interface of saline seawater and the freshwater brought down by the upstream rivers.  It’s also a part of flood-plain of the Ganges river with a brackish water regime and is vulnerable to natural disasters. Through successful addressing of natural disasters and optimum use of natural resources especially, land, water and forest that the local culture and civilization has developed through centuries. But agriculture is the principal occupation of 66% population livelihood in this region. Due to adverse impact of climate change and unnecessary human causing reduced fresh water flow, riverbank erosion and silting up, increased salinity in water and soil, and frequency and intensity of natural disasters. Beside, lack of adequate knowledge on crop zoning, water management, use of agro chemicals, diversified agriculture practices, which have combined to make vulnerable situation of local agro system. Now farmers cultivate only single crop during the monsoon (June-November).  Rest of the year

approximate 70% of land have uncultivated for lack of fresh water and high salinity. Hence, there is very limited opportunity to cultivate diversified crops in round year. Mention factors are increasing scarcity of safe food, nutritious and chronic poverty in this region. Those are major challenges to increase safe food production and improve the standard of lives and livelihoods.

In this situation, AOSED generated a new idea and implement a pilot project inLoubove Village, of Loudove Union, Dacope Upazila (sub District) of Khulna Bangladesh.

Objective of the Project:Enhance access to secure food and nutrition for the vulnerable communities and eradicate extreme poverty through diversified agriculture extension.

Activities of the pilot project:

Farmers group formation, Educational materials develop and awareness campaign, Linkage building with LGIs, CSOs, relevant Govt. departments, and Educational institutes, periodic group meeting, various level of experience sharing meeting, exposure visit, and issue based training, Excavated canal for fresh water reservoir, developed embankment, soil and water quality test, land demarcation for crop zoning, fertilizer dosage selection, cultivated HIV and local variety rice, fruits and vegetables and local fish species,


Enhance skill and capacity of farmers on fresh water perseveration and optimum utilization, crop zoning, diversified cultivation.  They get knowledge and techniques for preparing soil and water quality test, fertilizer dosage selection, paste management, and reduced crop damage.

20 Acre saline affected single crop land turned in to diversified cultivation in round year and successfully cultivated variety type of rice, fruits and vegetable. Besides, developed fresh water reservoir of 4.8 Acre land by excavate canal which become full of aquatic life gradually in natural way, including plankton and various local species of fishes with flora and fauna.

Title of the project:Sustainable Effect to Ensure Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation in South West Bangladesh Project  
Project Area:Pankhali, Dacope and Kailashgonj Union of Dacope Upazila, Khulna District of Southwest Coastal region of Bangladesh.    
Project Duration:January 2011 to December 2013  (36 months)
Beneficiaries:7624 households comprising 37800 people who are seafaring safe drinking water crisis and sanitation facilities  

Short description of Project:

Lack of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities are a significant barrier to improving the health and wellbeing and reducing poverty in the southwest coastal regions of Bangladesh. Salinity in ground and surface water, arsenic contamination of shallow aquifer, lack of aquifer and difficulties in extracting saline free water are some of the causes. The effects are negative health, social and economic outcomes for the local population.

The seriousness of the situation has been recognised by the international development community and the Government of Bangladesh (GoB), demonstrated by the prominence of the issue in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for Bangladesh. The seventh of the eight Millennium Development Goals calls for governments to cut by half the percentage of their population living without safe drinking water and basic sanitation and GoB is committed to achieving the MDG targets. This commitment is reflected in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) that envisages reducing infant mortality rate from the 2000 benchmark value of 66 to 37 by 2010 and 22 by 2015.

Objective of the Project: To ensure peoples’ access to safe water and sanitation, develop effective maintenance system of water points, behavioral change of health hygiene practices amongst 37,800 poor and socio-economically marginalized people of Dacope Upazila, Khulna Districts.

This project has been implemented with the cooperation of SIMAVI, the Netherlands.

Key Activities of the Project:

Formation of Peoples’ and Civil Society Organizations(CSO), Capacity development through  training, seminars, workshops, opinion & experiences sharing meetings, Linkage building with Local Government Institutions(LGIs) and relevant government departments, Campaign materials develop, Awareness Campaign among Communities  & Students, Media Campaign, Local resources mobilization, Repair and construct of damaged water points and update sanitation system by joint efforts of the people & LGIs, Formulation & popularization of Peoples’ Demand, and Conduct Advocacy and lobbying with the Policy actors.


Active 139 people’s and 4 CSOs Committee in the project area with 4125 members including 70% women, enhanced their skills, knowledge and capacity on Water conservation, optimum use of water & maintenance, proper sanitation, health hygiene practices and access to participate in the local level decision making process and conduct social movement.

Getting safe water facilities around 4300 household by newly constructed/repaired of 26 number of  water points (Pond, Tube well & Pond Sand Filter-PSF), active and effective maintenance committees for regular maintenance of water points with local fund.

Increased water supply and sanitation facilities in 6 rural schools with 2560 students and teachers, formed School Sanitation Management Committee for regular maintenance by separate fund and  enhance knowledge on water use & personal health hygiene practices of students.

As a result of social movement and advocacy, Khulna Zila Parishad (District Board) has cancelled lease of 63 public ponds of Khulna district and Department of Public Health and Engineering(DPHE) & LGIs become more responsible to address people’s need.These successes are achieved through active and effective participation of multi-stakeholders.

Title of the project:Initiatives for Sustainable Sanitation facility in SIDR-hit areas in Bangladesh  
Project Area:Super cyclone SIDR affected area Morrelganj and Shoronkhola Upazila of Bagerhat District in the Southwest Bangladesh    
Project Duration:May 2009 to January 2010  
Beneficiaries:1575households comprising 7800 people who are seafaring safe drinking water crisis and sanitation facilities  

Short description of Project:

On 15 November 2007, Cyclone Sidr struck the south-west coast of Bangladesh with winds up to 240 kilometers per hour. The category 4 storm was accompanied by tidal waves up to five meters high and surges up to 6 meters in some areas, breaching coastal and river embankments, flooding low-lying areas and causing extensive physical destruction. High winds and floods also caused damage to housing, roads, bridges, and other infrastructure. Damage and loss from Cyclone Sidr was concentrated on the southwest coast thirty districts were classified as “severely affected” and a further eight were classified as “moderately affected”. Of the 2.3 million households affected about one million were seriously affected. The number of deaths are estimated at 3,406, with 1000 people were missing, and over 55,000 people sustaining physical injuries. Besides, drinking water was contaminated by debris and many sources were inundated with saline water from tidal surges, and sanitation infrastructure was destroyed.

However, the affected communities do not have much capacity to repair and rehabilitate these structures themselves without some outside support. They will also need assistance with hygiene advice. According to the published Red Crescent and UNICEF reports, sanitation persists as one of the most important problems with many latrines broken and rendered unusable. Thus longer-term planning and support is needed to restore sanitation facilities.

In this context AOSED has taken initiative with the partnership of 4 local NGOs to Rehabilitate sanitation facilities and raise the health and hygiene awareness level in the SIDR struck areas with cooperation of SIMAVI, Netherlands.

Objective of the Project:To improve proper health hygiene practices through capacity development and provide sanitation facilities at household level and ensure active participation LGIs in the SIDR struck Morrelganj and Shoronkhola Upazila of Bagerhat District in the Southwest Bangladesh

Key Activities of the Project:

Baseline Survey and need assessment, Develop educational materials, Awareness campaign at community and schools, Capacity development of community, Union and Upazila level WASH committee, Linkage with LGIs, relevant government agencies, Newly  construction and  repair sanitarylatrineProject Management


20 Union and 2 Upazila level WASH committee more active and played effective roles to address community need with local WASH budget, enhanced capacity of community of proper health hygiene practices, increased sanitation facilities by newly constructing and repairing 1575 sanitary latrine at household level.

Title of the project:Grassroots Initiatives to solve Safe Water Crisis in Dacope Upazila of Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh  
Project Area:107 villages of Dacope Upazila (sub-district) under Khulna district    
Project Duration:June 2007  December 2010  
Beneficiaries:Poor and marginal peoples’ of deserving 4500 households, 117 elected representatives of LGIs (Union Parishad-UPs)  

Short description of Project:

Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate change. Southwest coastal region of Bangladesh has a rich biodiversity, geographical location has given it a brackish water regime of sedimentation, tidal and wind actions of the coastal rivers. Degradation of environment due to adverse impact of climate change and human interventions without considering its ecology, causing reduction of fresh water flow from upstream, obstruction of natural flow of tides, river erosion, silting up of river bed and increase of salinity.

Reason of unavailability of potable water and most of the water from shallow tube-wells contains excessive amounts of toxic metal and chemical. Hence, the problem of safe water As a result, environment and ecology degraded, safe drinking water crisis emerged and People’s lives and livelihoods become vulnerable.

In this context AOSED has taken initiative to ‘ensure the Right of “Safe water for all” through identification of local resources, their sustainable conservation, maintenance and distribution through participatory processes’with the cooperation of SIMAVI, Netherlands.

Objective of the Project:

To ensure the fulfilment of the needs of safe water for 4500 households by repairing and maintain properly with participation of LEBs. Rehabilitation and capacity building on sustainable conservation of existing safe water sources with the participation of local communities, Union Parishads and Civil Society Groups.

Key Activities of the Project:

Development of Database on safe water scenario in Dacope Upazila, Formation of PaaniAdhikar Committee-PAC (Water Rights Committee), Skill and capacity development for Grassroots Initiative, Awareness and Media Campaign, PromoteHardware support, Local resource mobilization,Developing Peoples’ Proposals and policy advocacy.


  • People have become organizedthrough 101PaniAdhikar Committees (PAC) of wards, union, Upazila and district level and enhanced their knowledge and capacity to conserve safe water resources,  conduct social mobilization and advocacy, and local resources mobilization.
  • Developed a participatory management system of water points;
  • Workload has been reduced to around 2352 household for water collection;
  • Political parties and allies have become unanimous regarding the safe water issue;
  • Legal action has been initiated by the government to prohibit leasing out and illegal occupation of water bodies;
  • Reduced commercial shrimp farming in saline waterby 80% in Dacope Upazila
  • Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) and relevant Govt. agencies become more sensitized  to addressing the safe water issue;

The project has gained justification for expanding into the wider coastal region

Title of the project:Sustainable School Sanitation  
Project Area:9 rural schools of Dacope Upazila under Khulna District of Southwest Coastal region of Bangladesh    
Project Duration:December 2008 to November 2009  
Beneficiaries:Students (1264 girls, 1072 boys), 92 teachers, School Management Committee (SMC), Upazila Teachers Association (UTA), Upazila Education and Health Official, Union Parishad-UP (Local elected body as a local government).  

Short description of Project:

The Southwest coastal region of Bangladesh is a vulnerable region due to its geographic location and low elevation (barely one meter above the sea level). Dacope Upazila (sub-district) under the Khulna district of the region, where the status of health and hygiene is very poor and the awareness level at the dimming condition. The sanitation status and behavioral practice is below the mark and resulting in suffering of the community due to waterborne diseases. The whole region has also been neglected and deprived of normal development for decades, resulting in poverty much above the national average. The people mainly depend on Natural resources, but their access to natural resources is very meagre. The situation of safe water and sanitation facilities is risky.

In this context AOSED has taken initiative to develop and establish effective school sanitation system in rural area of climate vulnerable southwest coastal region of Bangladesh with the cooperation of SIMAVI, Netherlands.

Objective of the Project:

To improve sanitation infrastructure and proper health hygiene practices through enhance knowledge, information and capacity of students and provide better sanitation facilities in the vulnerable rural educational institutions.

Key Activities of the Project:

Formation of Sustainable Sanitation Campaign Group; Development of Campaign Materials and teachers training module; Teacher Training; Conduct class room sessions; formation of School Sanitation Management Committee with separate fund; provide sanitation facilities in student competition, Parents’ Day.


Capacity, skill and knowledge enhanced of the rural students on proper practices of health-hygiene, improved sanitation facilities in rural educational institutions.

Developed school sanitation management and maintenance mechanism with own fund. A special room has been set up for menstrual period of the girls’ students. At least 72% students have shared their knowledge of hygiene and sanitation with their family members. Specially, absence rate of the girl students has been reduced.

Project Title:Grasroots Initiatives against the MNC’s agro-chemical Intervention in Agriculture.
Project Duration:From August to February 2007    
Project Area:Bajua and Laudob Unions under Dacope Upazila of Khulna district of southwest Bangladesh.
Stakeholders of the action research Project.   The direct Stakeholders: 12 groups of farmers (6 male and 6 female) from the two Unions, making a total of 144 individuals and Union Parishads (28 persons) Total 172.  

Short description of Project:

Chemical Fertilizers, Pesticides, Seeds, Water Management and Land Reform are the main issues that have been confronted by the farmers of southwest Bangladesh. With the passage of time, the farmers have moved on from cultivating local varieties of corps as they are being motivated to cultivate hybrid and high-yielding seeds for producing more crops on less area. These hybrid and high-yielding species of corps are not immune against local pests and diseases. Local distributors of MNC’s chemical pesticide use this shortcoming to persuade the farmers to use chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides for more crops and immunization against pests and diseases. Being lack adequate knowledge and information about the terrible consequences of using excessive chemicals on land they use more and more chemicals in their field without proper instruction. Gradually, the effectiveness of the chemicals decrease and the farmers have to use higher and higher quantities and dosages of the chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides and other toxic chemicals without any further gain. On the other hand, the poisonous pesticides killed insects both good and bad, birds and fishes, and in this manner degraded the ecology and environment of the region.    

Objectives of the action research:

Analyze and understand the impact of the interventions of agro-chemicals of MNCs in the agriculture sector of Dacope Upazila and utilization process and quantity and how to measure actual needs. And way-out how to possible to reduce or optimum use of agro-chemicals in a participatory manner.

Key Activities:

Primary and secondary information collection of agro-chemicals and its producer, marketing process. Meeting

with trade bodies (agro-chemical producers, sellers etc.), Develop awareness materials and publish and awareness campaign and capacity development, Linkage with Union Parishad, Department of Agriculture and relevant government officials, conduct social audit


Developed a review report based on available information. Developed and distributed awareness materials, farmers and community people become aware on adverse impact of using excessive agro-chemicals, trained farmers on optimum usage of chemicals. 40% of total cost on agro-chemicals has been reduced through examining the soil, water quality and crop variety selection. Besides, the farmers will be benefited by the reduced use of agrochemicals and the presence of chemicals in the food chain will also be reduced.

Title of the project:Climate change Awareness Raising of Secondary School Students in Southwest Bangladesh  
Project Area:65 secondary schools and Madrashas of Khulna, Jessore, NarialBagerhat districtin the southwest region of Bangladesh    
Project Duration:March 2003 to March 2005  
Beneficiaries:15051 students (6773 girls, 8278 boys), 92 teachers, School Management Committee, Teachers Association, Upazila Education Official, Union Parishad-UP,Education Board, Jessore and National Curriculum and Textbook Board.

Short description of Project:

Apart from environmental and development activists and experts in climatology, very few people are aware of the drastic changes that are taking place in the world’s climatic pattern. But some of the manifestations of climate change have already started to appear in our country and especially this Southwest Region of Bangladesh.

Millions of people living in the rural areas, especially in this southwest coastal region of Bangladesh, are likely to face devastating risks in the not too distant future. Therefore, it is essential that the people inhabiting in this most vulnerable region be made aware of the damaging consequences of climate change. So, they need to be prepared to adapt themselves to the coming changes in their physical environment. The people of the country have proved time and again that they can face overwhelming challenges, and are capable of adapting to environmental circumstances. But they need to be informed, as knowledge is the key to overcome all problems.

Climate change related information is not included in the formal educational curriculum.Students have been targeted because they are future citizens,when they become adults, they have to face the effects of climate change in the long run. By making them aware and educate them about the adverse effect of climate change so that they will be capable to motivate the mass people about this issue.

In this context, AOSED gather a new idea to educate teachers and students on Climate Change issue and which hadimplemented by 25 month duration project in the southwest Bangladesh with the cooperation of CARE RVCC Project, financed by CIDA with an implementing partner ‘DakDiye Jai’ for Bagerhat district. 

Objective of the Project:

To enable the secondary school teachers in the southwest to demonstrate their capacity to raise awareness on climate change among the students.

Key Activities of the Project:

School & Madrasa selection, Develop education materials (Easy reading Booklet 1st part for class VI and VII, 2nd part for class VIII and IX two sets of flip chart), Teachers training module and guideline, Teachers’ training, Conduct class sessions, Students’ Competition, various level of sharing and persuasion meetings, Policy Discussion


Under the program, developed two illustrated easy reading booklets, two sets of flip charts and teachers’ guideline to support the teaching method.

Enhanced information and knowledge and skills of teachers to conduct class room sessions on climate change and improved knowledge level of rural students on Weather and climate, Environment and ecology of southwest Bangladesh, Climate change in Bangladesh and the world, its negative impacts in the southwest coastal region, strategy of adaptation, Responsibility and future trends on climate change situation. Besides, increased primary information and knowledge of communities through their children. Policy makers have agreed that ‘Climate change’ issue should be included in the formal curriculum.